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Use up/down arrows to compare Q, Q_{n}, and Q_{s}.

(1) 700 hPa Z (solid contours every 3 dam), T (green dashed contours every 3^{o}C), Q (arrows in x10^{-7} Pa m^{-1} s^{-1}), and Total RHS (neglecting the Beta term) of QG Omega equation (shaded in x10^{-12} Pa m^{-2} s^{-1}) (Q-vector form).

(2) 700 hPa Z (solid contours every 3 dam), T (green dashed contours every 3^{o}C), Q_{n} (arrows in x10^{-7} Pa m^{-1} s^{-1}), and Total RHS (neglecting the Beta term) of QG Omega equation (shaded in x10^{-12} Pa m^{-2} s^{-1}) (Q_{n}-vector form).

(3) 700 hPa Z (solid contours every 3 dam), T (green dashed contours every 3^{o}C), Q_{s} (arrows in x10^{-7} Pa m^{-1} s^{-1}), and Total RHS (neglecting the Beta term) of QG Omega equation (shaded in x10^{-12} Pa m^{-2} s^{-1}) (Q_{s}-vector form).

NCEP GFS analyses and forecasts on 1x1 latitude-longitude grid are smoothed with a 9-point local smoother run 30 times.